Tag Archives: Directors

Great Director Profile – Spike Lee

By D.G. McCabe

Spike Lee, the director of Do the Right Thing (1989) and Malcolm X (1992) along with dozens of other movies ranging for traditional Hollywood thrillers (Summer of Sam (1999), Inside Man (2006)) to Fellini-esque independent films (Do the Right Thing, She’s Gotta Have it (1986)) would probably be famous in some respect if he wasn’t one of America’s finest living directors.  After all, his confrontations with Indiana Pacers star Reggie Miller from his courtside Knicks seats are the stuff of legend.  He is also not a man to keep his opinions or ideas to himself, which of course could be said about most talented artists.

I don’t make the above comparison to Federico Fellini lightly.  After all, Lee’s “double dolly” floating technique could have fit in Fellini’s masterpiece 8 1/2 (1963).  Like Fellini, Lee’s films are grounded in realism but use fantastic techniques to emphasize theme and important, over-story concepts. For example, Radio Rahim’s (Bill Nunn) cutaway scene in Do the Right Thing and the endings of Malcolm X and Bamboozled (2000) stand as examples of Lee breaking conventional storytelling realism to address the audience directly.

Sometimes Lee gets a bit heavy handed in his conveying of themes to his audience, and I once thought that this was a weakness in his films.  After getting to know his work a bit better, I have come to realize that this “heavy handedness” is by design.  Lee wants to be provocative in the literal sense, and if he has to sacrifice traditional elements of film storytelling to initiate a dialogue among his audience, so be it.

It is in Do the Right Thing where Lee best achieves a balance between his desire to tell a compelling story and his desire to make the audience think about and discuss issues in modern society. Much criticism has been written about whether Mookie (played by Lee) “does the right thing” at the end of the movie when he trashes Sal’s (Danny Aiello) pizzeria. Lee himself has pointed out that this is immaterial – the destruction of the pizzeria is a spontaneous reaction to the outrage felt by the community towards the death of Radio Rahim at the hands of the police.  If anything, Mookie’s actions re-direct the focal point of the angry mob away from Sal and towards a piece of property (which, as Mookie points out at the end of the film, Sal has insurance on).

The ending of Do the Right Thing is not, therefore, about an individual choice that Mookie makes in the heat of the moment, but rather the difficulty of rational reactions in the face of communal outrage (as once again emphasized by the Martin Luther King and Malcolm X quotes at the very end of the film).  Still, the characters and story are so well developed that the audience can’t help but discuss the motivations and decisions of the individual characters.

Spike Lee’s next film is going to be a horror movie/thriller about “people who aren’t vampires but are addicted to blood.”  To fund his new project, Lee has asked for help from the public on his Kickstarter page.  Since film, nearly alone among art-forms, takes a boatload of money to properly produce, this is a good concept in my opinion – raising funds for a movie without having to listen to the concept critiqued to death by a hundred studio executives.

(c) 2013 D.G. McCabe

Great Director Profile: Akira Kurosawa

“For me, film-making combines everything. That’s the reason I’ve made cinema my life’s work. In films painting and literature, theatre and music come together. But a film is still a film.”

– Akira Kurosawa (1910-1998)

By D.G. McCabe

One day, you look at your blog and realize that you haven’t written a “monthly” great director profile in three months.  To make up for lost time, I thought I would discuss the man whom I consider to be the most important of all filmmakers – Japanese director Akira Kurosawa.  Why Kurosawa and not Alfred Hitchcock, Stanley Kubrick, Steven Spielberg, or other directors more familiar to the modern filmgoer? Allow me to demonstrate.

Multiple Cameras

While Kurosawa wasn’t the first filmmaker to use multiple cameras in his films, he was the first to really take full advantage of the technique.  The final battle scene in 1954’s Seven Samurai involves shots from hundreds of different angles and directions, previewing techniques that modern, special effects laden films such as The Lord of the Rings (2001-2003) would use to capture busy action sequences.

Nature

In 195o’s Rashomon, Kurosawa pointed his camera at the sun, which until that point, had not been done.  This wasn’t a gimmick, however, as Kurosawa and his cinematographer, Kazuo Miyagawa, used mirrors and sunlight to enhance the natural light of their set instead of using lighting equipment on a controlled backlot or soundstage.  Kurosawa also successfully used rain (Rashomon, Seven Samurai), fog (Throne of Blood, 1957), snow (Ikiru, 1952), cloud formations (Ran, 1985), and other natural elements to establish mood and contrast in his films.

Character Sketches

Kurosawa was once quoted as saying that even a great director could not make a good film from a bad script, and he practiced what he preached.  He not only either wrote or co-wrote the scripts for all of his films, but also drafted long, detailed character sketches in the same way that a novelist might.  This allowed Kurosawa to portray fully realized characters on screen even if they only had a few moments of screen time.  One example is the character of Lady Kaede (Mieko Harada) in Ran, who is one of the most terrifying villains in all of cinema, but is only on screen for a half dozen scenes at most.

Artistic Vision

While Kurosawa’s greatest masterpieces exist as films, his first love was painting.  His black and white films contain hundreds of unforgettable images.  With very few shots, Kurosawa could establish mood, theme, and emotion.  The ending to Ikiru, for example, is only a few seconds but captures the theme of that film arguably as well as the rest of the film combined.

Sound

Instead of using sound simply to convey emotion, as was the style in studio-era Hollywood for the most part, Kurosawa used sound to highlight contrast and thereby heighten emotion.  Arguably, his films mark the end a style of film soundtrack that relied heavily on 19th century, Romanticist style instrumental music to force an emotion on the audience (think 1939’s Gone with the Wind).

Editing

Kurosawa edited all of the films that he directed, and his editing has been praised as some of the finest in film history.  Generally speaking, his editing style stops to create juxtaposition and theme without disrupting the overall flow of the narrative.  Indeed, the reason why Kurosawa started using multiple cameras was so that he would have more options for putting all of the pieces together in the editing room.

Conclusion

Kurosawa wrote, directed, and edited thirty films.  He was able to create completely realized visions of storytelling and theme that are more akin to novels than many other films, and inspired hundreds of his successors to do the same.  While he is credited with dozens of filmmaking innovations, it is his success as the creator of completely unified and consistent films that make him the most important filmmaker in the history of the artform.

(c) 2012 D.G. McCabe

Director Profile – David Lean

Sir David Lean (1908-1991)  is often considered Britain’s greatest director.  Alfred Hitchcock was also British of course, but while Hitchcock started his career in Britain, he made the majority of his films in Hollywood.  Of his British films, only “The Lady Vanishes” (1938) and “The 39 Steps” (1935) could be listed among his top pictures.  Lean on the other hand worked almost exclusively in the British film industry, and even his big budget Hollywood films were joint UK/US productions.

David Lean isn’t a familiar name to the general movie-going public these days as his last film “A Passage to India” came out in 1984.  His career isn’t fodder for biopics and he isn’t the most talked about director among film critics and historians by a long shot.  However, his career has had a profound influence on two opposite genres of film – historical epics and intimate character pieces.

The beauty and influence of Lean’s epics is often the first thing associated with him, and rightly so.  The screen transition at the start of Lawrence of Arabia (1962) that begins with Lawrence (Peter O’Toole) blowing out a match and ends with the sun rising over the desert should be in chapter one of the book of cinematography.  The climax of the Bridge on the River Kwai (1957)  is equally mesmerizing, as is the barren Russian winter landscapes of Dr. Zhivago (1965).

Another important, although often overlooked, aspect of Lean’s epics is his use of music.  The visuals are so awe-inspiring that we often forget that part of what makes the visuals so memorable are Lean’s musical choices.  There is a reason, after all, why people who have never seen Lawrence of Arabia or Bridge on the River Kwai can recognize the theme music of those films.

Lean’s epics have had a profound impact on the films of Steven Spielberg, George Lucas, Baz Luhrmann, and even Mel Brooks, but what sets him apart from many epic filmmakers was his early mastery of intimate, character driven works.  For example, his first great film, Brief Encounter (1945) is based on a one act Noel Coward play about the hidden tensions of 1930’s British suburbia.  His adaptations of Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations (1945) and Oliver Twist (1948) are often considered the definitive film versions of these classics.  Most of us  have seen the famous “Please sir, I want some more” scene from Oliver Twist even if we haven’t seen the entire film.

David Lean’s progression from the intimate and theatrical, to the intimate and literary, to the sweeping and epic, is one of the most important such progressions in film history.  Still, to those who are unfamiliar with his work, I would start with Lawrence of Arabia (although I’m a bit biased – it’s one of my favorite movies) and Bridge on the River Kwai, jump back to his Noel Coward/Charles Dickens works, and finish with Dr. Zhivago.

(c) 2013 D.G. McCabe

Director Profile of the Month – Steven Spielberg

I’m starting a new feature here on Cinema Grand Canyonscope – the director profile of the month.  This month – Steven Spielberg

Ask yourself a question – how many Spielberg movies have you seen?  If you’re like me, the results may surprise you.  I was certain that I had seen more Bergman movies or Scorsese movies (I’ve seen 7 of each).  Maybe in my movie watching life I’d even more Michael Bay films (also 7, mercifully he’s only made 9 features).  I’ve seen twice as many Spielberg movies.

Spielberg’s films have an internal consistency to them, his vision is one of hope triumphing over despair.  I’ve heard people find his worldview too rosy, and it’s true that he can’t resist romanticism.  I don’t think this is always a bad thing, unless you think that every work of art needs to be as dark and gritty as possible.   Spielberg rarely delves that deeply into individual characters to penetrate the dark recesses of the soul like Ingmar Bergman or Stanley Kubrick.   But do we really need him to?

I used to think that Spielberg had such a mastery of the big picture narrative that he couldn’t really make a movie that was completely character driven.  Lincoln (2012) of course, changed my opinion.  While the historical implications of the film’s plot are unquestionably monumental, equally without question is the fact that nothing much happens in the film.  After all, it only takes place over the course of a couple of weeks for the most part.  Even Spielberg’s best film, Schindler’s List (1993) is heavily dependent on plot and a massive narrative arc.  Lincoln, his next best film if you asked me today, while dealing with an important historical figure and event, is almost Ozu-esque in its simplicity (almost being the key word – Spielberg can’t resist a bit of pomp and circumstance during the film’s bookends).

While many great directors struggles outside of a certain genre (Hitchcock after all made almost exclusively thrillers), Spielberg is a notable exception.  The other 8 of his best films include thrillers (Jaws (1975), Jurassic Park (1993), Munich (2005)), adventure stories (E.T.: The Extraterrestrial (1982), Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)), war movies (Saving Private Ryan (1999)), and comedies (Catch Me If You Can (2002)).   Certainly Jaws is as much horror as thriller and Catch Me if You Can is as much an police procedural as comedy, demonstrating that it’s hard to pin down his films into genres at all.

So what makes Spielberg a great director?  His films contain a unique over-arching vision, are incredibly diverse as to style and genre, and extremely well-made.  He is too contemporary to really judge his influence but if young directors such as J.J. Abrams are any indication, his career will cast a long shadow indeed.

(c) 2013 D.G. McCabe

The Great Directors – New Format and Update

I have decided to make a few changes to the format of my “Top Twenty Directors” list.  The more I watch, research, and write about film the more I realize that “ranking” the great directors doesn’t really do justice to their impact on film or to their work in general.  Instead I’m going to keep a list of Great Directors, and periodically write “Great Director Profiles” posts to share my thoughts on their work.  (The original “Top Twenty” list is archived under “February 2012” for anyone interested).

Here’s the background.  Back in 2006,  having noticed hundreds of “best film of all time” lists I realized that there weren’t nearly as many lists of the greatest directors.  At the time, I was in law school and I needed a good distraction to prevent myself from going batty, so I started doing research, got myself a Netflix subscription, and got to work.

That being said, here’s the list, complete with a few of the directors’ most notable films (no more than five).  The directors are listed alphabetical order. More descriptive profiles will follow.

– Woody Allen (1935 – ), US.  Some Notable Films: Annie Hall (1977), Manhattan (1979), Hannah and Her Sisters (1986), Midnight in Paris (2011).

– Robert Altman (1925-2006), US.  Some Notable Films: MASH (1970), McCabe and Mrs. Miller (1971), Nashville (1975), Gosford Park (2001).

– Michelangelo Antonioni (1912-2007), Italy. Some Notable Films: L’avventura (1960), La Notte (1961), Blow-Up (1966).

– Ingmar Bergman (1918-2007), Sweden.  Some Notable Films: The Seventh Seal (1957), Wild Strawberries (1957), Persona (1966), Cries and Whispers (1972), Fanny and Alexander (1982).

– Luis Bunuel (1900-1983), Spain/France.  Some Notable Films: Un Chien Andalou (1929), Viridiana (1961), The Exterminating Angel (1962), Belle de Jour (1967).

– Charles Chaplin (1889-1977), UK/US.  Some Notable Films: The Gold Rush (1925), City Lights (1931), Modern Times (1936), The Great Dictator (1941).

– Francis Ford Coppola (1939 – ), US.  Some Notable Films: The Godfather (1972), The Godfather, Part II (1974), Apocalypse Now (1979).

– Vittorio De Sica (1901-1974), Italy.  Some Notable Films: Shoeshine (1946), Bicycle Thieves (1948), Umberto D. (1952), Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow (1963).

– Carl Theodor Dreyer (1889-1968), Denmark.  Some Notable Films: Michael (1924), The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928), Vampr (1932).

– Sergei Eisenstien (1898-1948), USSR.  Some Notable Films: Battleship Potemkin (1925), October (1928), Alexander Nevsky (1938), Ivan the Terrible (1944).

– Rainer Werner Fassbinder (1945-1982), Germany.  Some Notable Films: Love is Colder than Death (1969), Ali: Fear Eats the Soul (1974), The Marriage of Maria Braun (1979).

– Fredrico Fellini (1920-1993), Italy.  Some Notable Films: I Vitelloni (1953), La Strada (1954), La Dolce Vita (1960), 8 1/2 (1963), Amarcord (1973).

– John Ford (1894-1973), US. Some Notable Films: Young Mr. Lincoln (1939), The Grapes of Wrath (1940), My Darling Clementine (1946), The Searchers (1956), The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962).

– Jean-Luc Godard (1930 – ), France.  Some Notable Films: Breathless (1960), Vivre sa Vie (1962), Pierrot le Fou (1965), Week-End (1967).

– Werner Herzog (1942 – ), Germany.  Some Notable Films: Aguirre: The Wrath of God (1972), The Enigma of Kasper Hauser (1974), Grizzly Man (2005), Cave of Forgotten Dreams (2010).

– Alfred Hitchcock (1899-1980), UK/US.  Some Notable Films: The Lady Vanishes (1938), Rear Window (1954), Vertigo (1958), North by Northwest (1959), Psycho (1960).

– Buster Keaton (1895-1966), US.  Some Notable Films: Sherlock, Jr. (1924), The General (1926), Steamboat Bill, Jr. (1928).

– Krzysztof Kieslowski (1941-1996), Poland.  Some Notable Films: The Decalogue (1989), The Double Life of Veronique (1991), Three Colors (1993-1994).

– Stanley Kubrick (1928-1999), US/UK.  Some Notable Films: Paths of Glory (1957), Dr. Strangelove (1964), 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), A Clockwork Orange (1971), Full Metal Jacket (1987).

– Akira Kurosawa (1910-1998), Japan.  Some Notable Films: Rashomon (1950), Ikiru (1952), Seven Samurai (1954), The Hidden Fortress (1958), Ran (1985).

– Fritz Lang (1890-1976), Germany/US.  Some Notable Films: Metropolis (1927), M (1931), The Testament of Dr. Mabuse (1933), Fury (1936), The Big Heat (1953).

– David Lean (1908-1991), UK/US.  Some Notable Films: Brief Encounter (1945), Great Expectations (1946), Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), Lawrence of Arabia (1962).

– Spike Lee (1957 – ), US.  Some Notable Films: Do the Right Thing (1989), Malcolm X (1992), 25th Hour (2002).

– Sergio Leone (1929-1989), Italy.  Some Notable Films: Fistful of Dollars (1964), The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly (1966), Once Upon a Time in the West (1968).

– David Lynch (1946 – ), US. Some Notable Films: Blue Velvet (1986), Lost Highway (1997), Mulholland Dr. (2001).

– Louis Malle (1932-1995), France.  Some Notable Films: Elevator to the Gallows (1958), My Dinner with Andre (1981), Au Revoir Les Enfants (1987).

– F.W. Murnau (1888-1931), Germany/US.  Some Notable Films: Nosferatu (1922), Faust (1926), Sunrise: A Tale of Two Humans (1927).

– Yasujiro Ozu (1903-1963), Japan.  Some Notable Films: I Was Born But…(1932), Late Spring (1949), Tokyo Story (1953), Floating Weeds (1959).

– Satyajit Ray (1921-1992), India.  Some Notable Films: Pather Panchali (1955), Aparajito (1956), World of Apu (1959), The Chess Players (1977).

– Jean Renoir (1894-1979), France.  Some Notable Films: The Lower Depths (1936), The Grand Illusion (1937), The Rules of the Game (1939), French Cancan (1954).

– Roberto Rossellini (1906-1997), Italy.  Some Notable Films: Rome, Open City (1945), Paisan (1946), Germany, Year Zero (1948), Stromboli (1950).

– Martin Scorsese (1942 – ), US.  Some Notable Films: Taxi Driver (1976), Raging Bull (1980), Goodfellas (1990), The Departed (2006).

– Steven Spielberg (1946 – ), US.  Some Notable Films: Jaws (1975), Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), E.T.: The Extraterrestrial (1982), Schindler’s List (1993), Saving Private Ryan (1998).

– Quentin Tarantino (1963 – ), US.  Some Notable Films: Reservoir Dogs (1992), Pulp Fiction (1994), Inglourious Basterds (2009).

– Andrei Tarkovsky (1932-1986), USSR.  Some Notable Films: Andrei Rublev (1966), Solaris (1972), Stalker (1979).

– Francois Truffaut (1932-1984), France.  Some Notable Films: The 400 Blows (1959), Jules et Jim (1962), Day for Night (1973), The Last Metro (1980).

– Orson Welles (1915-1985), US.  Some Notable Films: Citizen Kane (1941), The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), The Lady from Shanghai (1947).

– Billy Wilder (1906-2002), US. Some Notable Films: Double Indemnity (1944), Sunset Blvd. (1950), The Apartment (1960).

– Dziga Vertov (1896-1954), USSR.  Some Notable Films: The Kino-Pravda Series (1922), Man with a Movie Camera (1929), Enthusiasm (1930).

– Jean Vigo (1905-1934), France.  Some Notable Films: Zero de Conduite (1933), L’Atalante (1934).

(c) 2013 D.G. McCabe

Top Twenty Directors List

To begin my film discussions, I would like to start with a list that I hold near and dear.  For those of you who know me, you have probably heard me recite this list, possibly more than once.

Here’s the background.  Back in 2006,  having noticed hundreds of “best film of all time” lists I realized that there weren’t nearly as many lists of the greatest directors.  At the time, I was in law school and I needed a good distraction to prevent myself from going batty, so I started doing research, got myself a Netflix subscription, and got to work.

That being said, here’s the list, complete with a few of the directors’ most important films (no more than five) and a brief description of them.

1) Akira Kurosawa (1910-1998).  Some notable films: Rashomon (1950), Seven Samurai (1954), Ikiru (1952), Ran (1985), The Hidden Fortress (1958).

When you watch a Kurosawa film, you may be struck by the number of conventions that seem familiar, but it’s because he invented them.  “The Emperor,” as he was known in some circles, directed 32 films from the early 1940’s until shortly before his death in 1998.  Kurosawa drew inspiration from Shakespeare, the samurai stories of medieval Japan, and his own personal experiences in post-war Japan and used all methods available to him to tell those stories exceedingly well.  It often appeared that he had the power to harness nature itself and bend it to his will.  In some of his later work, he used color film for the first time.  Like fishing with dynamite – it just wasn’t fair.

2) Alfred Hitchcock (1899-1980). Some notable films: Rear Window (1954), Psycho (1960), Vertigo (1958), North by Northwest (1959), Notorious (1946).

Hitchcock started his career in silent films, and to him, images came first, and everything else was flourish.  Images of a man with a broken leg spying on his neighbors with a telescope, a biplane firing upon a cornfield, a knife cutting up a shower curtain, and hundreds of others are seared into our popular imagination.  He started his career in his native England and moved to Hollywood in 1940.  Overall he directed 65 films and six seasons of a popular television series.

3) Ingmar Bergman (1918-2007). Some notable  films: Persona (1966), The Seventh Seal (1957), Through a Glass Darkly (1961), Wild Strawberries (1957), Fanny and Alexander (1982).

I once went to an open house at the Swedish Embassy, and when I mentioned that most of what I learned about Sweden I knew from Bergman, the tour guide responded, “Well, we’re not all that depressing.”  Bergman’s films were more than an endless Scandinavian winter of despair though, and even his darkest films have a silver lining.  Bergman’s 63 films deal with themes more in the realm of literature than film: the silence of God, the mental illness of a loved one, growing old, the alienation of modern society.

4) Stanley Kubrick (1928-1999).

Some notable films: 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), A Clockwork Orange (1971), Full Metal Jacket (1987), Dr. Strangelove or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964), Paths of Glory (1957).  Is Kubrick the greatest American director?  It’s close, but I think he edges out John Ford.  He only made 16 films, but he never made a bad one (even Eyes Wide Shut is not a bad film).  I always like to think that Kubrick excelled by making his audience uncomfortable, but the reason his films make us uncomfortable is because he is showing us a part of ourselves we’d rather not acknowledge.  Still, we keep coming back.

5) John Ford (1894-1973). Some notable films: The Searchers (1956), The Grapes of Wrath (1940), The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962), Stagecoach (1939), How Green Was My Valley (1941).

John Ford is best known as the man most responsible for the rise and fall of the Western.  He made so many so well that he set an impossible standard for the genre.  Most of the directors on this list that followed Ford have referred to him at one time or another as an influence.  Although some of his 146 films feel dated now (and his depictions of Native Americans in his early work leave much to be desired), his best work features some of the deepest characters and best performances in all of cinema.

6) Fredrico Fellini (1920-1993). Some notable films: 8 1/2 (1963), La Dolce Vita (1960), La Strada (1954), I Vitelloni (1953), Amarcord (1973).

I sometimes don’t know where to begin with Fellini.  The first of his 24 films were squarely in the Italian neo-realist camp, but then something happened around 1960 when he started using the conventions of the realists to tell stories in unconventional ways and create possibly the most unique style in all of cinema.

7) Orson Welles (1915-1985). Some notable films: Citizen Kane (1941), The Lady from Shanghai (1947), The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), Touch of Evil (1958).

Orson Welles was many things (actor, writer, radio star, frozen food salesman) and few of the 42 films he directed are widely seen today (the majority of them are shorts and documentaries).  One stands above all of the others of course, but Citizen Kane was not Welles’ only masterpiece from behind the camera.  His films were some of the first that felt like they could be real when you watched them, and he made them a decade before the Italian neorealists or the auteurs of the French New Wave.

8) Francois Truffaut (1932-1984). Some notable films: Jules and Jim (1962), The 400 Blows (1959), The Last Metro (1980), Day for Night (1973), Fahrenheit 451 (1966).

Speaking of the New Wave, I don’t think it had a more versatile director that Truffaut.  The “French coming of age film” is arguably his invention, but it was Truffaut’s knowledge of film that really set him apart from other directors.  He knew what worked and what didn’t, and it allowed him to transcend genres in ways that even some of the directors I have ranked ahead of him could not match.

9) Martin Scorsese (1942 – ). Some notable films: Goodfellas (1990), Raging Bull (1980), Taxi Driver (1976), The Departed (2006), Cape Fear (1991).

So far, Scorsese has made 51 films.  His best work deals with characters at the margins of society, and his best stories deal with subjects we’d rather have swept under the rug.  The images that stay with us from his films are oftentimes the most shocking and violent, but the context that Scorsese places around those images make us consider their meaning rather than simply recoiling from them.  Even when Scorsese reaches beyond what we usually think of as his comfort zone, he never loses his ability to place intricate context around memorable images.

10) Charles Chaplin (1889-1977). Some notable films: City Lights (1931), Modern Times (1936), The Great Dictator (1941), The Gold Rush (1925), The Kid (1921).

For a time, Charlie Chaplin was the most famous man in the world.  Once the British vaudeville actor got behind the camera (he starred in 86 films and directed 73), he was one of the first people to see that film could be art and not just silly or melodramatic images flashing across the screen.   It is hard to overstate the importance of Chaplin’s work, especially his later films, in the development of the comedy genre.

11) Jean-Luc Godard (1930 – ). Some notable films: Breathless (1960), Vivre sa Vie (1962), Pierrot le Fou (1965), Alphaville (1966), Week End (1967).

Godard made the best of his 97 films in the 1960’s.  He’s still making movies, largely unbeknownst to American audiences.  Breathless alone has been called the French Citizen Kane for its innovations (the jump cuts especially).  To some, his work may seem like experimentation for experimentation’s sake, but his creativity has influenced many of the best post 1960’s films.

12) Stephen Spielberg (1946 – ). Some notable films: Schindler’s List (1993), Jaws (1975), E.T.: The Extraterrestrial (1982), Saving Private Ryan (1998), Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981).

This one is more controversial than it needs to be.  Spielberg has 48 films in the can, and yes, some of them are terrible.  One thing that I always remember about Spielberg though is his interest in the macro-story – the story of the world in which his characters live.  He doesn’t dwell on the day-to-day lives of his characters, and if they come off a little flat sometimes it is only because Spielberg is eternally preoccupied with the magnificence around them, and by extension around all of us.

13) David Lean (1908-1991). Some notable films: Lawrence of Arabia (1962), Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), Brief Encounter (1945), Doctor Zhivago (1965), Great Expectations (1946).

Speaking of magnificent, there are the 19 films of David Lean.  While Chaplin and Hitchcock were born in England, it is Lean who was the master of a uniquely English cinema.  His undisputed masterpiece Lawrence of Arabia and his other big budget epics have given him a  reputation in the United States as a master of large scale, Hollywood productions.  Still, in many ways it is his early Noel Coward and Dickens adaptations that set him apart by demonstrating his unique awareness of English culture.

14) Fritz Lang (1890-1976). Some notable films: Metropolis (1927), M (1931), The Big Heat (1953), The Testament of Dr. Mabuse (1933), Fury (1936).

Metropolis is the first great science fiction film, and of his 46 films, it is probably Lang’s best known.  Even so, Metropolis is a bit of an outlier in Lang’s German period.  Most of his pre-1936 films built the foundation of what became known as the police procedural genre (later, television producers would owe him an enormous debt of gratitude).  After Lang fled Germany in 1936 rather than work for the Nazis, his work in Hollywood served as the bedrock of another important genre: Film Noir.

15) Vittorio De Sica (1901-1974). Some notable films: Bicycle Thieves (1948), Umberto D (1952), Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow (1963), Shoeshine (1946).

De Sica is best known as the director of Bicycle Thieves, but he made 36 films and starred in 156.   De Sica and others developed one of the most influential movements in film history – Italian Neorealism.  The basic idea behind Neorealism was that film should imitate life as closely as possible.  By doing so, it would break through the conventions of popular cinema to give the audience a heightened awareness of social issues, specifically the plight of working class Italians after World War II.  While other directors such as Roberto Rossellini were important to the movement, De Sica’s films are probably the best known and most influential internationally.

16) Yasujiro Ozu (1903-1963). Some notable films: Tokyo Story (1953), Late Spring (1949), I Was Born, But…(1932), Floating Weeds (1959).

Ozu’s films are slow meditations on the nature of family and human relationships.  If Spielberg is eternally preoccupied with the magnificent worlds his character inhabit, Ozu was his counterpoint.  His 54 films do not have plot twists or fantastic adventures, but instead focus on the daily lives of ordinary people in pre and post war Japan.  Ozu is also well known for his distinctive artistic style (low angle shots, using scenes from nature to pace his films, having actors speak directly into the camera, etc.).

17) Satyajit Ray (1921-1992). Some notable films: Pather Panchali (1955), Aparajito (1956), The Chess Players (1977), The Visitor (1991), World of Apu (1959).

The Bollywood style is iconic of Indian cinema, but it is the Neorealist influenced style of Ray that is often referred to as the apex of Indian art cinema.  If Bollywood represents escapism in Indian film, Ray represents the confrontational with his unforgettable meditations on poverty.  Both styles are valuable, but Ray casts a larger shadow over Indian art cinema than any single director does over Bollywood.

18) Luis Bunuel (1900-1983). Some notable films: Belle de Jour (1967), Un Chien Andalou (1929), The Exterminating Angel (1962), The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie (1972), Viridiana (1961).

Bunuel was close friends with Salvador Dali, and what Dali is to art, Bunuel is to cinema.  The first of his 34 films was a collaboration with Dali, and despite the fact that it makes absolutely no sense, Un Chien Andalou remains one of the most influential short films ever made.  His later work is more accessible, but never loses the unique dreamlike qualities that made Bunuel an icon of surrealist art.

19) Sergei Eisenstein (1898-1948). Some notable films: Battleship Potemkin (1925), October (1928), Alexander Nevsky (1938), Ivan the Terrible (1944).

Eisenstein may not have invented the montage or the propaganda film, but he might as well have.  Eisenstein’s first films glorified the Russian Revolution on behalf of the Bolsheviks, but he fell out of favor with them for time while he traveled the world.  He earned their favor again with his later films which are credited with inspiring the Russian army during World War II.  What we have of Eisenstein’s work is impressive, but I can’t help but think what could have been if he was free to fully explore his genius without the Soviet government breathing down his neck.

20) Robert Altman (1925-2006). Some notable films: Nashville (1975), MASH (1970), Gosford Park (2001), McCabe & Mrs. Miller (1971), Short Cuts (1993).

There are 89 feature length films, television programs, and documentaries that credit Robert Altman as a director.  He started as a television director, loved working with ensembles and without a script, and the results are often as messy and hilarious as daily life.  If there ever was a director who could be called the master of controlled chaos, it was Altman.

The next ten (in alphabetical order by last name): Woody Allen, Michelangelo Antonioni, Frances Ford Coppola,  Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Werner Herzog, Buster Keaton, Spike Lee, F.W. Murnau, Jean Renoir, Billy Wilder.

(c) 2012 D.G. McCabe